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History of Insects

History of Insects

The book which we are glad to introduce to the public has grown up from the multi-authored book in Russian, Rohdendorf B.B., Rasnitsyn A.P. (eds.) 1980. Historical development of the class Insecta (Trans. Paleontol. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR. 175. Nauka Press, Moscow, 270 pp.). However, it has overgrown it considerably, at least in the volume, to take 2.3 million symbols plus more than 500 illustrations (black-and-white photos and line drawings of the fossils, as well as phylogenetic trees), and it is updated as much as we can do. The manuscript is accepted for publication by the Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht, The Netherlands). You are welcome to learn more about the book on this page.

This presentation is made with kind permission from
Kluwer Academic Publishers

CONTRIBUTORS

N.V. Belayeva, V.A Blagoderov, V.Yu. Dmitriev, K.Yu. Eskov, A.V. Gorokhov, V.D. Ivanov, N.Yu. Kluge, M.V. Kozlov, E.D. Lukashevich, M.B. Mostovski, V.G. Novokshonov, A.G. Ponomarenko, Yu.A. Popov, A.P. Rasnitsyn, D.E. Shcherbakov, N.D. Sinitshenkova, S.Yu. Storozhenko, I.D. Sukatsheva, V.N. Vishniakova, Peter Vransk, and V.V. Zherikhin


Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn, Donald L.J. Quicke


The Editors

This book is dedicated to four people
most responsible for the present state of palaeoentomology,


Andrey Vasilievich Martynov,
Boris Borisovich Rohdendorf
Frank Morton Carpenter, and
Vladimir Vasilievich Zherikhin

 

PREFACE

Insects are not dinosaurs - and they probably pose us more strange puzzles and unexpected questions. A million extant species, that is several times more than all other living taxa together, is still a very conservative estimate, and their real number is for sure many times more. They are incomparably diverse in terms of their size, structure and way of life - and yet they are all small - by our standard at least - why? And they practically ignore the cradle of life, the sea - again, why? Of course, some survive and even reproduce in salt water, but nevertheless very few of them are specialised for marine life. Some insects have developed highly elaborate forms of sociality, far surpassing all achievements reached by vertebrates (including ourselves), at least in terms of interdependence of individuals. Once again, - why have they developed this way of life? The history of insects is also rich of unexpected discoveries as well as of painful gaps, though these omissions are not overwhelming nor necessarily senseless. There is a special branch of palaeontology called taphonomy whose aim is to learn about the burial pattern of the past organisms: what governs their chance of becoming fossilised, and how this chance depends on features of both the organisms themselves and on their environments. Depending on how deep the taphonomical background in a particular research field, it is even possible to glean information from the very gaps in the fossil record. For instance, lake deposits are known to be favourable for the insect burial in contrast to deposits left by running waters. If a group of insect fossils has a poor record in spite of being aquatic (judging from its morphology: otherwise habits is unknown), it likely occurred in streams, and almost certainly so in case the few available fossils are worn and incomplete in contrast to other aquatic fossils collected there.

Palaeontology is an important, though not the only, way to trace the history of insects: phylogenetics is another and is equally important, and it is noteworthy that it is largely independent of the fossil record in its sources and inferences. Both ways are widely used and are mutually helpful and exert controls on one another. Using the words of Willi Hennig, they provide mutual illumination. There are even quantitative tools in progress aimed at helping to assess how well the fossil record and various phylogenetic hypotheses agree with one another (e.g. the ghost range method, Rasnitsyn 2000a).

Phylogenetic research is popular and widespread, mainly in the form of cladistics (particularly since its fundamentals were rediscovered by the English speaking audience in Hennig 1966a). However, this is not the case for palaeoentomology, because palaeoentomologists were and are still few in number, and are widely scattered, except for the Moscow research group with its associates, which has been the most prolific and productive such group in the world since the 1960's. So it is not completely by chance that the present book is written mainly by those Russian scientists, but importantly it attempts to cover all the world's material and all the available information.

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION TO PALAEOENTOMOLOGY

1.1. SCOPE AND APPROACH by A.P. Rasnitsyn

1.1.1. COVERAGE

1.1.2. PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

1.1.3. NOMENCLATURE

1.2. SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE STUDY OF FOSSIL INSECTS by A.P. Rasnitsyn

1.3. CONCISE HISTORY OF THE PALAEOENTOMOLOGY by A.P. Rasnitsyn

1.4. PATTERN OF INSECT BURIAL AND CONSERVATION by V.V. Zherikhin

1.4.1. GENERAL

1.4.2. INSECT TAPHONOMY

1.4.2.1. DIRECT BURIAL IN SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS

1.4.2.1.1. AUTOTAPHONOMICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.1.2. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.1.2.1. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANISMS IN THEIR LIFE-TIME

1.4.2.1.2.2. MORTALITY FACTORS

1.4.2.1.2.3. POST-MORTEM ECOLOGICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.1.3. TAPHOTOPICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.1.4. POSRBURIAL FACTORS

1.4.2.1.5. TECHNICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.2. INDIRECT BURIAL IN FOSSIL CONTAINERS

1.4.2.2.1. FOSSIL RESINS

1.4.2.2.1.1. AUTOTAPHONOMICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.2.1.2. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.2.1.3. TAPHOTOPICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.2.1.4. POSTBURIAL FACTORS

1.4.2.2.1.5. TECHNICAL FACTORS

1.4.2.2.2. OTHER PRIMARY FOSSIL CONTAINERS

1.4.2.2.2. SECONDARY FOSSIL CONTAINERS

1.4.3. PRODUCTS OF THE TAPHONOMICAL PROCESS: INSECT FOSSILS AND ICHNOFOSSILS IN DIFFERENT PALAEOENVIRONMENTS AND MODES OF THEIR PRESERVATION

1.4.3.1. MARINE DEPOSITS

1.4.3.2. NON-MARINE SUBAQUATIC PALAEOENVIRONMENTS

1.4.3.2.1. LACUSTRINE DEPOSITS

1.4.3.2.2. SWAMP, MARSH AND OTHER WETLAND DEPOSITS

1.4.3.2.3. FLUVIAL DEPOSITS

1.4.3.2.4. SPRING DEPOSITS

1.4.3.3. SUBAERIAL PALAEOENVIRONMENTS

1.4.3.4. SELECTIVITY OF THE ROCK RECORD

1.4.3.5. INSECT MICROFOSSILS AND CHEMOFOSSILS

1.4.4. INSECTS AS CONTAMINANTS IN FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGES

1.4.5. INSECT ACTIVITIES AS A TAPHONOMIC FACTOR

2. CLASS INSECTA Linné, 1758. THE INSECTS by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.1. SUBCLASS LEPISMATONA Latreille, 1804. THE WINGLESS INSECTS

2.1.1. ORDER MACHILIDA Grassi, 1888. THE BRISTLETAILS

2.1.2. ORDER LEPISMATIDA Latreille, 1804. THE SILVERFISH

2.2. SUBCLASS SCARABAEONA Laicharting, 1781. THE WINGED INSECTS

2.2.?.1. ORDER PAOLIIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1. INFRACLASS SCARABAEONES Laicharting, 1781

2.2.1.1. COHORS LIBELLULIFORMES Laicharting, 1781

2.2.1.1.1. SUPERORDER EPHEMERIDEA Latreille, 1810. THE MAYFLIES

2.2.1.1.1.1. ORDER TRIPLOSOBIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.1.1.2. ORDER SYNTONOPTERIDA Handlirsch, 1911

2.2.1.1.1.3. ORDER EPHEMERIDA Latreille, 1810. THE TRUE MAYFLIES by N.Yu. Kluge, N.D. Sinichenkova

2.2.1.1.2. SUPERORDER LIBELLULIDEA Laicharting, 1781. ORDER ODONATA Fabricius, 1792. THE DRAGONFLIES by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.2. COHORS CIMICIFORMES Laicharting, 1781 by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.2.1. SUPERORDER CALONEURIDEA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.2.1.1. ORDER BLATTINOPSEIDA Bolton, 1925

2.2.1.2.1.2. ORDER CALONEURIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.2.1.3. ORDER ZOROTYPIDA Silvestri, 1913

2.2.1.2.2. SUPERORDER HYPOPERLIDEA Martynov, 1928. ORDER HYPOPERLIDA Martynov, 1928

2.2.1.2.3. SUPERORDER DICTYONEURIDEA Handlirsch, 1906 by N.D. Sinichenkova

2.2.1.2.3.1. ORDER DICTYONEURIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.2.3.2. ORDER MISCHOPTERIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.2.3.3. ORDER DIAPHANOPTERIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.2.4. SUPERORDER PSOCIDEA Leach 1815 by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.2.4.1. ORDER PSOCIDA Leach, 1815. THE BOOKLICE

2.2.1.2.4.2. ORDER PEDICULIDA Leach, 1815. THE LICE

2.2.1.2.4.3. ORDER THRIPIDA Fallén, 1914 by V.V. Zherikhin

2.2.1.2.5. SUPERORDER CIMICIDEA Laicharting, 1781 ORDER HEMIPTERA Linné, 1758. THE BUGS, CICADAS, PLANTLICE, SCALE INSECTS, etc. by D.E. Shcherbakov, Yu.A. Popov

2.2.1.3. COHORS SCARABAEIFORMES Laicharting, 1781 THE HOLOMETABOLANS by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.3.?.1. ORDER STYLOPIDA Stephens, 1829

2.2.1.3.1. SUPERORDER PALAEOMANTEIDEA Handlirsch, 1906 ORDER PALAEOMANTEIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.1.3.2. SUPERORDER SCARABAEIDEA Laicharting, 1781. ORDER COLEOPTERA Linné, 1758. THE BEETLES by A.G. Ponomarenko

2.2.1.3.3. SUPERORDER MYRMELEONTIDEA Latreille, 1802 by A.G. Ponomarenko

2.2.1.3.3.1. ORDER RAPHIDIIDA Latreille, 1810

2.2.1.3.3.2. ORDER CORYDALIDA Leach, 1815

2.2.1.3.3.3. ORDER NEUROPTERA Linné, 1758

2.2.1.3.3.4. ORDER JURINIDA M. Zalessky, 1928

2.2.1.3.4. SUPERORDER PAPILIONIDEA Laicharting, 1781 by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.3.4.1. ORDER PANORPIDA Latreille, 1802. THE SCORPIONFLIES by V.G. Novokshonov

2.2.1.3.4.2. ORDER TRICHOPTERA Kirby, 1815. THE CADDISFLIES by V.D. Ivanov, I.D. Sukatsheva

2.2.1.3.4.3. ORDER LEPIDOPTERA Linné, 1758. The BUTTERFLIES and MOTHS by M.V. Kozlov, V.D. Ivanov, A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.3.4.4. ORDER DIPTERA Linné, 1758. THE TRUE FLIES by V.A Blagoderov, E.D. Lukashevich, M.B. Mostovski

2.2.1.3.4.5. ORDER PULICIDA Billbergh, 1820. THE FLEAS by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.1.3.5. SUPERORDER VESPIDEA Laicharting, 1781. ORDER HYMENOPTERA Linné, 1758 by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.2. INFRACLASS GRYLLONES Laicharting, 1781. THE GRYLLONEANS by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.2.?.1. ORDER EOBLATTIDA Handlirsch, 1906

2.2.2.1. SUPERORDER BLATTIDEA Latreille, 1810

2.2.2.1.1. ORDER BLATTIDA Latreille, 1810. THE COCKROACHES by Peter Vransk, V.N. Vishniakova, A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.2.1.2. ORDER TERMITIDA Latreille, 1802. THE TERMITES by N.V. Belayeva

2.2.2.1.3. ORDER MANTEIDA Latreille, 1802. THE MANTISES by V.V. Zherikhin

2.2.2.2. SUPERORDER PERLIDEA Latreille, 1802 by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.2.2.1. ORDER GRYLLOBLATTIDA Walker, 1914 by S.Yu. Storozhenko

2.2.2.2.2. ORDER PERLIDA Latreille, 1810. THE STONEFLIES by N.D. Sinitshenkova

2.2.2.2.3. ORDER FORFICULIDA Latreille, 1810. THE EARWIGS AND PROTELYTROPTERANS by D.E. Shcherbakov

2.2.2.2.4. ORDER EMBIIDA Burmeister, 1835. THE WEBSPINNERS by A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.2.3. SUPERORDER GRYLLIDEA Laicharting, 1781 by A.V. Gorokhov, A.P. Rasnitsyn

2.2.2.3.1. ORDER ORTHOPTERA Olivier, 1789. THE ORTHOPTERANS

2.2.2.3.2. ORDER PHASMATIDA Leach, 1915. THE STICK INSECTS

2.2.2.3.3. ORDER MESOTITANIDA Tillyard, 1925

2.3. INSECT TRACE FOSSILS by V.V. Zherikhin

2.3.1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

2.3.2. LOCOMOTION AND RESTING TRACES

2.3.3. SHELTERS AND BORROWINGS

2.3.4. OVIPOSITION TRACES

2.3.5. FEEDING TRACES

2.3.6. COPROLITES

3. GENERAL FEATURES OF THE INSECT HISTORY

3.1. DYNAMICS OF THE INSECT TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY by V.Yu. Dmitriev, A.G. Ponomarenko

3.2. ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE TERRESTRIAL INSECTS by V.V. Zherikhin

3.2.1. INTRODUCTION

3.2.2. PALAEOZOIC

3.2.2.1. ENVIRONMENTS OF INSECT ORIGIN AND EARLY EVOLUTION

3.2.2.2. MIDDLE CARBONIFEROUS TO PERMIAN

3.2.2.2.1. GENERAL FEATURES OF PALAEOZOIC INSECTS

3.2.2.2.2. HERBIVORES

3.2.2.2.3. DETRITIVORES AND FUNGIVORES

3.2.2.2.4. PREDATORS

3.2.2.2.5. SOME ECOSYSTEM-LEVEL PHENOMENA

3.2.2.3. THE PALAEOZOIC/MESOZOIC TRANSITION

3.2.3. MESOZOIC

3.2.3.1. TRIASSIC - EARLY CRETACEOUS

3.2.3.1.1. GENERAL FEATURES OF MESOZOIC INSECTS (before mid-Cretaceous)

3.2.3.1.2. HERBIVORES

3.2.3.1.2.1. ANTHOPHILY AND EVOLUTION OF ENTOMOPHILY

3.2.3.1.2.2. OTHER FORMS OF HERBIVORY

3.2.3.1.3. DETRITI- AND FUNGIVORES

3.2.3.1.4. PREDATORS AND PARASITES

3.2.3.1.5. ORIGIN OF SOCIALITY

3.2.3.1.6. SOME ECOSYSTEM-LEVEL PHENOMENA

3.2.3.2. THE LATE CRETACEOUS AND THE MESOZOIC/CAINOZOIC TRANSITION

3.2.3.2.1. GENERAL FEATURES OF LATE CRETACEOUS INSECTS

3.2.3.2.2. HERBIVORES

3.2.3.2.3. DETRITI- AND FUNGIVORES

3.2.3.2.4. PREDATORS AND PARASITES

3.2.3.2.5. PATTERN AND MODELS OF THE MID-CRETACEOUS EVENTS

3.2.4. CAINOZOIC

3.2.4.1. GENERAL FEATURES OF CAINOZOIC INSECTS

3.2.4.2. HERBIVORES

3.2.4.3. DETRITI- AND FUNGIVORES

3.2.4.4. PREDATORS AND PARASITES

3.2.4.5. INSECT SOCIALITY AND SOME ECOSYSTEM LEVEL PHENOMENA

3.2.4.6. ORIGIN OF PRINCIPAL TYPES OF MODERN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

3.3. ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE AQUATIC INSECTS by N.D. Sinichenkova

3.3.1. INTRODUCTORY NOTES

3.3.2. CARBONIFEROUS

3.3.3. PERMIAN

3.3.4. TRIASSIC

3.3.4.1. OVERVIEW OF TAXA OF AQUATIC INSECTS

3.3.4.2. AQUATIC INSECT ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR TYPOLOGY

3.3.5. JURASSIC

3.3.5.1. OVERVIEW OF TAXA OF AQUATIC INSECTS

3.3.5.2. AQUATIC INSECT ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR TYPOLOGY

3.3.6. CRETACEOUS

3.3.6.1. OVERVIEW OF TAXA OF AQUATIC INSECTS

3.3.6.2. AQUATIC INSECT ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR TYPOLOGY

3.3.7. CAINOZOIC by V.V. Zherikhin, N.D. Sinichenkova

3.3.7.1. OVERVIEW OF TAXA OF AQUATIC INSECTS

3.3.7.2. AQUATIC INSECT ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR TYPOLOGY

3.3.7.3. MODELS OF CRETACEOUS AND CAINOZOIC EVOLUTION OF AQUATIC INSECT ASSEMBLAGES

3.4. GEOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF INSECTS by K.Yu. Eskov

3.4.1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

3.4.2. DEVONIAN STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.3. CARBONIFEROUS STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.4. PERMIAN STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.5. TRIASSIC STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.6. JURASSIC STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.7. CRETACEOUS STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.8. CAINOZOIC STAGE OF INSECT EVOLUTION

3.4.9. PROBLEM OF THE SO-CALLED "GONDWANAN" RANGES OF THE RECENT TAXA

3.4.10. SOME GENERAL PHYLOGENETIC PATTERNS

4. APPENDIX: ALPHABETIC LIST OF SELECTED INSECT FOSSIL SITES

4.1.IMPRESSION FOSSILS by A.P. Rasnitsyn, V.V. Zherikhin

4.2. FOSSIL RESINS by K.Yu. Eskov

5. REFERENCES

GENERAL INDEX

INDEX TO TAXON NAMES

Figure captions

CONTRIBUTORS

Natalya V. Belayeva, Chair of Entomology, the Moscow State University, Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow, 119899 Russia, nvb@3.entomol.bio.msu.ru.

Vladimir A Blagoderov, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, currently Department of Entomology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192, USA, vblago@amnh.org.

Viktor Yu. Dmitriev, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, palaeoentomolog@mail.ru.

Kirill Yu. Eskov, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, afranius@newmail.ru.

Andrey V. Gorokhov, Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, Zoological Institute RAS, University Embarkment 1, St Petersbourg 199034 Russia, orthopt@zin.ru.

Vladimir D. Ivanov, St Petersbourg State University, University Embarkment 7, St Petersbourg 199034 Russia, vladi@vdi.usr.pu.ru.

Nikita Yu. Kluge, St Petersbourg State University, University Embarkment 7, St Petersbourg 199034 Russia, kluge@ent.bio.pu.ru. [www.bio.pu.ru/win/entomol/kluge-en.htm]

Mikhail V. Kozlov, Laboratory of Ecological Zoology, University of Turku, Turku FIN 20500 Finland, mikoz@mailhost.utu.fi.

Elena D. Lukashevich, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, palaeoentomolog@mail.ru.

Mikhail B. Mostovski, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, phorids@hotmail.com.

Viktor G. Novokshonov, Perm State University, Bukireva 15, Perm 614600 Russia.

Alexandr G. Ponomarenko, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, aponom@paleo.ru.

Yuri A. Popov, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, elena@advizer.msk.ru.

Donald L.J. Quicke, Department of Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY UK, d.quicke@ic.ac.uk. [http://www.bio.ic.ac.uk/staff/dlq/dquicke.htm]

Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, rasna@online.ru.

Dmitry E. Shcherbakov, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, palaeoentomolog@mail.ru.

Nina D. Sinitshenkova, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, palaeoentomolog@mail.ru.

Sergey Yu. Storozhenko, Biological and Pedological Institute, Far East Branch RAS, Vladivostok 690022 Russia, entomol@online.marine.su.

Irina D. Sukatsheva, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, rasna@online.ru.

Valentina N. Vishniakova, retired from Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, rasna@online.ru.

Peter Vransk, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia, vrsansky@zutom.sk.

Vladimir V. Zherikhin, Palaeontological Institute RAS, Moscow 117997 Russia.

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